Bacterial

Written by Super User on . Posted in Conditions

The human body's respiratory tract is one of the most common sites of infection by foreign bacteria-based pathogens. Each year children acquire between two and five upper respiratory tract infections and adults acquire one or two infections. If there's anything that can be common, it would be a bacterial respiratory infection. The human respiratory tract is also a frequent site of infection because it comes in direct contact with one's physical environment on a constant basis. We are exposed to airborne microorganisms constantly, especially based upon our surroundings.

There is an immensely wide range of organisms that are capable of being able to infect the respiratory tract such as those including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and various parasites. Wouldn't you like something that can eliminate your side effects after being exposed? First, you have to understand the anatomy of your body and how it works. You can't solve the problem if you didn't know what was making this happen in the first place.

The anatomy of the upper respiratory tract is a semi-complex unit that contains several structures to help rid the respiratory system of particles and foreign bacteria’s. The nasal cavity has a mucociliary lining, which is considered similar to that of the lower respiratory tract. The inside of the nose is lined with hairs that act as a filter to eliminate larger particles that are inhaled, and the turbinate bones are covered with mucus that collects particles that are not filtered by the nasal hairs.

After one's inhaled air moves through the nasal passages, the actual anatomy of the upper airway changes direction and causes many of the larger airborne particles to impinge on the back of the throat. The adenoids and tonsils are the lymphoid organs in the upper respiratory tract, and absolutely are vital in the developing of an immune response to bacteria. These are located in an area where many of these airborne particles make contact with the mucosal surface over the adenoids and tonsils. As common locations for being exposed to bacteria, you wonder why you get sick!

For this very reason, EmphyCorp has developed an amazing form of treatment that can effectively help those who suffer from chronic or frequent bacterial respiratory infections. With EmphyClear, patients who suffer from the many hardships involved with common pathogens are able to overcome and live out their daily lives with grace and ease. By releasing anti-inflammatory properties, EmphyClear is capable of clearing up any congestion that was once possessed. No more swollen glands and no more stuffed up nasal passages. Your respiratory system will feel as good as new when you used EmphyClear as your go-to option to fend off any upper respiratory infections or bacterial infections.

Viral Infection

Written by Super User on . Posted in Conditions

The human body's respiratory tract is one of the most common sites of infection by foreign bacteria-based pathogens. Each year children acquire between two and five upper respiratory tract infections and adults acquire one or two infections. If there's anything that can be common, it would be a bacterial respiratory infection. The human respiratory tract is also a frequent site of infection because it comes in direct contact with one's physical environment on a constant basis. We are exposed to airborne microorganisms constantly, especially based upon our surroundings.

There is an immensely wide range of organisms that are capable of being able to infect the respiratory tract such as those including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and various parasites. Wouldn't you like something that can eliminate your side effects after being exposed? First, you have to understand the anatomy of your body and how it works. You can't solve the problem if you didn't know what was making this happen in the first place.

The anatomy of the upper respiratory tract is a semi-complex unit that contains several structures to help rid the respiratory system of particles and foreign bacteria’s. The nasal cavity has a mucociliary lining, which is considered similar to that of the lower respiratory tract. The inside of the nose is lined with hairs that act as a filter to eliminate larger particles that are inhaled, and the turbinate bones are covered with mucus that collects particles that are not filtered by the nasal hairs.

After one's inhaled air moves through the nasal passages, the actual anatomy of the upper airway changes direction and causes many of the larger airborne particles to impinge on the back of the throat. The adenoids and tonsils are the lymphoid organs in the upper respiratory tract, and absolutely are vital in the developing of an immune response to bacteria. These are located in an area where many of these airborne particles make contact with the mucosal surface over the adenoids and tonsils. As common locations for being exposed to bacteria, you wonder why you get sick!

For this very reason, EmphyCorp has developed an amazing form of treatment that can effectively help those who suffer from chronic or frequent bacterial respiratory infections. With EmphyClear, patients who suffer from the many hardships involved with common pathogens are able to overcome and live out their daily lives with grace and ease. By releasing anti-inflammatory properties, EmphyClear is capable of clearing up any congestion that was once possessed. No more swollen glands and no more stuffed up nasal passages. Your respiratory system will feel as good as new when you used EmphyClear as your go-to option to fend off any upper respiratory infections or bacterial infections.

Sarcoidosis

Written by Super User on . Posted in Conditions

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs in the body, but mostly the lungs and lymph glands. In people with sarcoidosis, abnormal masses or nodules (called granulomas) consisting of inflamed tissues form in certain organs of the body. These granulomas may alter the normal structure and possibly the function of the affected organ(s).

What Are Symptoms of Sarcoidosis

The symptoms of sarcoidosis can vary greatly, depending on which organs are involved. Most patients initially complain of a persistent dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include:

  • Tender reddish bumps or patches on the skin.
  • Red and teary eyes or blurred vision.
  • Swollen and painful joints.
  • Enlarged and tender lymph glands in the neck, armpits and groin.
  • Enlarged lymph glands in the chest and around the lungs.
  • Nasal stiffness and hoarse voice.
  • Pain in the hands, feet or other bony areas due to the formation of cysts (an abnormal sac-like growth) in bones.
  • Kidney stone formation.
  • Enlarged liver.
  • Development of abnormal or missed beats (arrhythmias), inflammation of the covering of the heart (pericarditis) or heart failure.
  • Nervous system effects, including hearing loss, meningitis, seizures or psychiatric disorders (for example, dementia, depression, psychosis).

In some people, symptoms may begin suddenly and/or severely and subside in a short period of time. Others may have no outward symptoms at all even though organs are affected. Still others may have symptoms that appear slowly and subtly, but which last or recur over a long time span.

Who Gets Sarcoidosis?

Sarcoidosis most often occurs between 20 and 40 years of age, with women being diagnosed more frequently than men. The disease is 10 to 17 times more common in African-Americans than in Caucasians. People of Scandinavian, German, Irish or Puerto Rican origin are also more prone to the disease. It is estimated that up to 4 in 10,000 people in the U.S. have Sarcoidosis.

What Causes Sarcoidosis?

The exact cause of sarcoidosis is not known. The disease is associated with an abnormal immune response, but what triggers this response is uncertain. How sarcoidosis spreads from one part of the body to another is still being studied.

Drug treatments are used to relieve symptoms and reduce the inflammation of the affected tissues. The oral corticosteroid prednisone is the most commonly used treatment. Fatigue and persistent cough are usually improved with steroid treatment. If steroids are prescribed, you should see your doctor at regular intervals so that he or she can monitor the disease and the side effects of treatment. Other treatment options include methotrexate and Plaquenil and other drugs.

What Can Happen as the Disease Progresses?

In many people with sarcoidosis, the disease appears briefly and then disappears without the person even knowing they have the disease. Twenty to 30% of people have some permanent lung damage. For 10% to 15%, sarcoidosis is a chronic condition. In some people, the disease may result in the deterioration of the affected organ. Sarcoidosis can be fatal in 5% to 10% of patients.

Interstitial Lung Disease

Written by Super User on . Posted in Conditions

EmphyCorp has been granted Orphan Drug status by the FDA to develop N115 for the treatment of Interstitial Lung Disease. The intent of the Orphan Drug Act is to stimulate the research, development, and approval of products that treat rare diseases. Since the Orphan Drug Act passed, over 100 orphan drugs and biological products have been brought to market.

Interstitial Lung Disease (Diffuse), includes a number of rare conditions presenting with characteristic clusters of clinical features, marked by an immune response and containing an inflammatory component. This disease classification refers to a subset of approximately 130 to 2(X) rare pulmonary diseases that include the fibrosing lung diseases and the granulomatous diseases.

Interstitial lung diseases are typically characterized by a marked inflammation at the site of the lung injury. This inflammatory process leads to further destruction of surrounding healthy lung tissue, and a continuation and expansion of the sites of inflammation. This inflammatory process results in the production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide, at the site of inflammation.

The functional changes reflect a restriction of airflow manifest by:

  • Decreased vital capacity
  • Decreased total lung capacity
  • Decreased residual volume
  • Decreased lung compliance
  • Cyanosis (sign of severe hypoxemia; attributed to ventilation-perfusion mismatching)
  • Late in the disease, one may see pulmonary hypertension due to destruction of the alveolar capillary bed

Nitric oxide is a known bronchodilator. It has been used successfully in this regard to treat patients with various pulmonary diseases, including the interstitial lung diseases. When endogenous nitric oxide, is exposed to oxygen radicals, it is converted to the toxic oxidant nitrogen dioxide, and its bronchodilating effect is mitigated. Conversely, nitrogen dioxide is a known deep lung irritant. It causes pulmonary inflammation; lowers levels of lung antioxidants; deteriorates respiratory defense mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to respiratory pathogens and increased incidence and severity of respiratory infections; reduces lung function, and worsens asthma and COPD symptoms.

Reactive oxygen species, especially superoxide anions, are known to compromise lung function by increasing bronchoconstrictions. As a result of the increasing inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species, and the decrease in nitric oxide that is believed to occur with the interstitial lung diseases, healthy tissue is damaged and lung function is compromised.

Based on our present understanding of the disease process involved with the interstitial lung diseases, and supported by the positive results obtained from the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis rat model study, it appears that an intervention in the inflammatory process that would result in a reduction in reactive oxygen species and a subsequent increase in nitric oxide could be an effective way to intervene in the disease process. This intervention would prevent the further spread of inflammation and lung damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide; and increase lung function by increasing bronchodilation.

Sodium pyruvate is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) antagonist that has been shown to neutralize oxygen radicals (specifically lowering the overproduction of superoxide anions), regulate the production and level of other inflammatory mediators, and regulate the synthesis of nitric oxide. Sodium pyruvate also increases cellular levels of glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant, which is reduced dramatically in antigen-induced lung disease patients.

The FDA has determined that N115 has sufficient safety toxicology and clinical data to proceed with the multi-dose, extended use, clinical trials. Phase II studies will focus on asthmatics and COPD patients. On the basis of existing clinical data, EmphyCorp is confident that its Investigative New Drug, N115, can and will be used for maintenance or continuous treatment of patients over extended periods of time. The Company believes that N115 will set the standard in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of major pulmonary diseases.