COVID-19 is a disease caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus.

In the last 1.5 years since the spread of this virus began a world-wide pandemic, hundreds of millions of people have become infected and millions have died. Although the advent of any novel pathogen is likely to result in widespread infection and mortality, SARS-CoV-2 induces a particularly severe and rapid form of pneumonia in some patient’s concomitant with an overall cytokine storm, but diminished interferon responses.

Although case severity varies by sex, age and comorbidities, some of the most severe comorbidities include high blood pressure, diabetes and interstitial lung disease.

COVID-19 viral infections also decrease lung functions and increase hypoxemia and dyspnea, coughing, fatigue, headaches, chills, fever, trouble breathing and shortness of breath (dyspnea).