Influenza A virus (IAV) causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics with significant morbidity and mortality.

In the 2019-2020 flu season, the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated 38 million IAV infections and 22,000 deaths.

The most prevalent virus of the 2019-2020 season was the 2009 pandemic IAV (H1N1). Notably, during this season, was a higher rate of infections among children aged 0-4 and adults aged 18-49 years than in other recent seasons.

During pandemics, the emergence of a novel virus can cause severe complications with increased morbidity and mortality.

Due to the novelty of the pandemic virus, vaccines must be redesigned. Anti-viral therapies exist to treat IAV. However, viral resistance to these therapies are always possible. Therefore, treatments that alter the host response to IAV infection and are less likely to result in evolution of resistance are desirable.